Examinations

Range of services & treatments

Cardiologie Luxemburg

High Blood Pressure

Diagnosis & therapy

Blood pressure and heart rate change constantly and are also subject to sudden fluctuations. This is quite normal and also makes sense, because in this way the body can quickly adapt to changing exertion levels. For example, to be particularly capable of responding physically in an emergency, your pulse or blood pressure will need to increase within seconds. Slight variations in blood pressure (unstable blood pressure) are for this reason healthy and normal. One prerequisite for a diagnosis of high blood pressure is that the blood pressure be permanently elevated even while at rest.

Heart failure

Cardiac insufficiency

In principle, any heart disease can lead to heart failure (cardiac insufficiency). The most common cause, however, remains coronary artery disease. This is a circulatory disorder of the heart. Other common causes include heart muscle and valve disorders.

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ECG examinations

Evaluation of heart activity

The abbreviation ECG stands for "electrocardiogram". This method measures the electrical activity of the heart. The heart’s activity is picked up electrodes and recorded on a graph. Dr. Mohsen can judge whether your heart is functioning optimally by evaluating this graph.

Depending on the symptoms, different types of electrocardiography can be performed:

Resting ECG

This shows the heart rate as well as visualising cardiac arrhythmias and indications of any other heart diseases. The classic ECG is done with the patient lying down. Electrodes are glued to the chest, arms and legs. These electrodes are connected to a recording device.

Stress ECG

If there is a suspicion that your heart is not being properly supplied with blood, a stress ECG can provide insight. Here, too, the patient is fitted with electrodes – then they spend some time pedalling on a bicycle ergometer. While they are exercising, Dr. Mohsen’s team checks their blood pressure, heart rhythm and general physical condition.

Long-term ECG

If, for example, cardiac arrhythmias occur only sporadically and therefore cannot be detected by the classic ECG, Dr. Mohsen will carry out a long-term ECG over a period of around 24 hours. For this purpose, electrodes connected to a mini recorder are created for you. The device records heart activity. The next day, the ECG is taken and evaluated.

Long-term blood pressure examination

Blood pressure measurement over 24 hours

The level of your blood pressure varies throughout the day depending on what you do. During physical exertion it is usually higher than when lying on the sofa or sleeping. With a long-term blood pressure measurement over 24 hours, Dr. Mohsen checks how your blood pressure behaves under everyday conditions. In this way, a detailed and informational blood pressure profile is created. Blood pressure that is generally too high or too low can be detected and treated if necessary. For the examination you will receive a cuff on your upper arm which is connected to a recorder. The device automatically measures your blood pressure every 15 minutes during the day and every 30 minutes at night.

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Ultrasound examinations of the heart

Cardiac ultrasound examination

The central examination method in cardiology is echocardiography (sometimes known as an “echo”), an ultrasound examination of the heart. It can provide information about various disorders and diseases.

External echocardiography through the chest (TTE)

Similar to an ultrasound of the abdomen, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) involves placing the ultrasound probe on the chest externally. This allows the heart to be displayed in a live image. The ultrasound examination provides a variety of information about the heart: about the shape, size and condition of its cavities, about the heart valves, and about the muscle itself and its performance. This examination is very helpful in the diagnosis of numerous heart diseases.

3D echocardiography

An extension of the TTE is 3D echocardiography. Dr. Mohsen uses a special ultrasound probe for this purpose, which enables a three-dimensional, spatial representation of the heart. In this way, several levels of the heart can be represented. 3D echocardiography is important for the assessment of heart valves or cardiac insufficiency.

Stress echocardiography

An “echo” can also be performed under stress, e.g. to precisely diagnose circulatory disorders of the heart. In stress echocardiography, a traditional ultrasound examination takes place under physical stress (bicycle ergometer). In some cases, heart performance is also increased by medication. The aim of the “stress echo” is to detect possible signs of a disturbed blood circulation in the coronary arteries.

Echocardiography via the esophagus (TEE)

Transesophagial echocardiography (TEE) is similar to gastroscopy. A thin, long, flexible tube, at the end of which the ultrasound probe is located, will be carefully inserted into your esophagus via the mouth. This is located close to the heart, so the TEE can provide even more precise images, e.g. of the atria and heart valves.

Implantation and controls

of pacemakers, defibrillators and event recorders

A cardiac pacemaker is used to treat a pulse that is too slow, accompanied by dizziness, reduced resilience, or sudden unconsciousness.

The defibrillator (implantable cardioverter defibrillator, or ICD for short) also treats dangerous forms of excessively fast heartbeats. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT for short) involves the use of a special defibrillator. It can treat not only a pulse that is too slow or too fast, but also advanced heart failure. Under certain conditions, it can compensate for irregular heart movements.

These two devices are surgically implanted and function as a kind of “built-in emergency medic” to carry out life-saving measures quickly and automatically in an emergency.

An implanted event recorder can be used to detect heart arrhythmias which occur in attacks and which cannot be detected in a classical ECG. The device is implanted when episodes of atrial fibrillation, fainting or stroke occur or have occurred for unexplained reasons.

Monitoring a pacemaker, ICD, CRT or event recorder

Patients with a cardiac pacemaker, defibrillator or event recorder must undergo regular cardiological check-ups. Dr. Mohsen reads out the data from the devices with a query probe and evaluates the information. He also checks the battery level, instrument settings, technical functionality and the condition of the electrodes. If necessary, settings/programmings can be adjusted.

Surgical implantation of pacemaker, defibrillator and event recorder

Should it be necessary, Dr. Mohsen will implant a pacemaker, defibrillator or event recorder into your body. This is a surgical procedure that is always performed in cooperation with the CHL Heart Centre in Luxembourg

You are in the best of hands with Dr. Mohsen – he is not only a cardiologist, but also an experienced heart surgeon.

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Electric cardioversion

for atrial fibrillation and flutter

Electric cardioversion is used to restore normal heartbeat in the case of cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. This is intended to return the heart to a normal, regular heartbeat (sinus rhythm).

This treatment is carried out under short anaesthesia and is painless. In electrical cardioversion, your heart is returned to the sinus rhythm by means of small, harmless electrical surges. The pulse generator for the surges is your own heartbeat. This is recorded during the entire treatment by an ECG. Cardioversion is intended to reduce the risk of stroke. The occurrence or worsening of heart failure can also be reduced.

Wound treatment

Post-operative care

Dr. Mohsen gained many years of experience in wound treatment, before becoming a cardiologist. He will treat your post-operative wound after procedures such as a pacemaker implantation or other cardiac surgery. He will also change the dressings.

This has the advantage for you that you do not have to stay overnight in the clinic, but are instead looked after by an experienced doctor on an outpatient basis.

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ABI (Ankle Brachial Index)

for an early diagnosis of heart attack or stroke

Many sufferers do not know that their vessels are diseased. In many cases, the arteries are already damaged but not yet causing the pain typically known as “intermittent claudication”. As a result, the disease remains undetected for a long time.

An early diagnosis can help to avoid complications such as vascular occlusion, heart attack or stroke.

The blood pressure in the ankles and arms can be determined as part of a simple and quick examination. The calculated ABI quotient gives clear indications.

Those who take the risk seriously and take precautions during the symptom-free period have a good chance of avoiding a heart attack.

When is an ABI measurement recommended?

For prevention and early detection – especially for:

  • Men over 50 years of age
  • Older patients as a regular check-up for high blood pressure
  • Increase in blood lipid levels
  • Increased risk due to family history

Carotid Doppler ultrasound

for early detection of arteriosclerosis

The most common causes of strokes are high blood pressure and arteriosclerosis. Deposits make the normally elastic vessel wall increasingly rigid and the smooth inner wall of the vessels rough. If the deposits grow, the vessel becomes increasingly narrowed.

It is crucial that arteriosclerosis be detected as early as possible. Carotid Doppler ultrasound with high-frequency sound waves can accomplish this painlessly. The intima media measurement examines the arteries supplying the brain for patency, thickness and elasticity. It is used for the early detection of vascular changes that may be indicative of higher risk.

Regular check-ups are therefore particularly important for high-risk patients.

When is carotid Doppler ultrasound recommended?

For prevention, early detection and ongoing control – especially in:

  • Family history of stroke
  • Increased blood lipid levels
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Overweight
  • High blood pressure
  • Circulatory disorders
  • Coronary heart disease – CHD
  • Heart failure/cardiac weakness from the age of 45

Are you interested in an appointment in the practice for Cardiology?